The disease of the largest blood vessel in the human body – abdominal aortic aneurysm
Aortic aneurysm is its saccular expansion, which develops as a result of thinning of the walls. The diameter of the abdominal vessel is normally 2 centimeters. However, due to the impact on its wall of various damaging factors, it can change the abdominal aortic aneurysm size to a size that threatens life. The threat is that with an aortic aneurysm, its base can stratify or even rupture, leading to intense internal bleeding and fatal hemorrhagic shock.
Factors and causes of abdominal aortic aneurysm:
- Obliterating atherosclerosis (occurs in 42-73% of cases);
- Gender (men get sick, according to statistics, 5-10 times more often);
- Age (usually over 55);
- Smoking – scientists believe that there is a close relationship between smoking and the development of aortic aneurysm – smokers are 4 times more likely to rupture than nonsmokers;
- Arterial hypertension;
- Abdominal trauma or surgical interventions on it;
- Hereditary ailments (Marfan syndrome, Ertheim's disease);
- Infectious diseases (syphilitic, mycotic and other forms of aortitis make up about 4.3%).
When a disease of the abdominal part occurs, the following symptoms are determined:
- Patients note sensations of a pulsating formation in the abdomen, periodic pains reaching the back.
- In the case of an abdominal aortic aneurysm rupture, there is acute, sudden pain in the abdomen or lower back.
- In some cases, there is a cold snap, blanching and pain in the lower extremities (with the separation of a parietal thrombus and blockage of the arteries of the limb).
- When it is stratified, the patient may feel sudden weakness, dizziness, or pain and lose consciousness. This is a life-threatening condition, and in this case, the patient needs urgent medical aaa treatment.
Advanced Medical Care clinic suggestions for abdominal aortic aneurysm treatment
Quite often, an aortic aneurysm is detected during standard examinations of patients. For the diagnosis of abdominal aortic aneurysm, it is proposed:
- Ultrasound examination of the abdominal cavity.
- Spiral computed tomography with contrast enhancement.
- Magnetic resonance imaging.
There are large (more than 5 cm in diameter) and small (up to 5 cm in diameter) aortic aneurysms. Diagnostics will help to identify the degree of their risk. If large ones are identified, urgent surgical treatment is indicated, since the frequency of their rupture exceeds 25% per year. If small, depending on the size, are detected, surgical treatment is carried out in a planned manner. The small gap rate is less than 8% per year.
The timely aaa treatment is very important, since this is a severe pathology that tends to progress and rupture with a fatal outcome.
For small aneurysms, up to 5 cm in diameter, the doctor may recommend the so-called expectant tactics, which means that every 6 months it is necessary to conduct an examination in order to detect changes in its size. If you suffer from arterial hypertension, then you need to take antihypertensive medications on the advice of your cardiologist. Reducing pressure helps to reduce the progression of disease growth. Smoking is one of the risk factors, so you need to quit smoking. By itself, the abdominal aortic aneurysm is not going anywhere.
The indication for surgical treatment of aortic aneurysm is the presence of pain and pulsation in the abdominal cavity, the diameter of the aneurysm exceeding 5 – 5.5 cm, or an increase in its size over time.