Cholesterol is the main type of lipids (fats) in the body, vitally necessary for a person. Cholesterol is essential for cell growth and the formation of many hormones. For all these needs in the body (in the liver) is formed cholesterol is more than enough. But a person still consumes it with food, and often in excess what leads to high cholesterol.
Which should be its level according to the cholesterol study?
Normal total cholesterol (TC) levels are not higher than 5 mmol/l. In patients with cardiovascular disease and/or diabetes mellitus, the TC level should be below 4.5 mmol/l.
In patients who have had myocardial infarction or stroke, OX should be below 4.0 mmol/L.
The reasons for the high cholesterol — who is at risk?
Unbalanced nutrition contributes to the accumulation of excess cholesterol when the body gets an excessive amount of fats (margarine (spread), mayonnaise, butter, fatty meat, crabs, shrimp, baked goods, high-fat dairy products).
They provoke high cholesterol:
- Alcohol and smoking abuse;
- Cardiac pathologies in the form of a heart attack and angina pectoris;
- Diabetes mellitus — high blood glucose is an additional provoking factor for the production of ‘bad’ cholesterol;
- Renal failure;
- Extrahepatic jaundice;
- Hepatitis and cirrhosis of the liver;
- Lack of growth hormone;
- Uncontrolled use of a group of drugs;
- Frequent stressful situations;
Which are the symptoms of high cholesterol?
The accumulation of the harmful substance is often asymptomatic. When it rises, atherosclerotic plaques form in the body, which leads to cardiovascular problems and other health problems. A number of nonspecific symptoms of high cholesterol:
- Cardiac pathology;
- The appearance of clots with significant bleeding;
- Pain in the chest and joints;
- Fatty granulomas — painful inflammation of the skin
- Yellow spots of fat on the skin under the eyes, small fatty lobes in the corners of the eyes;
- Pain and heaviness in the legs, even with light exertion.
These are just the main signs, the identification of the person undergoing examination.
High cholesterol treatment
Atherosclerosis in the early stages can be stopped, and nutrition in this matter serves as a powerful preventive measure. When high cholesterol is detected, the doctor must give his recommendations. An experienced doctor will not make a rush in treating high cholesterol and prescribe medications but will try to reduce the level of the problematic substance by correcting nutrition.
Depending on the degree of risk, different high cholesterol treatment methods are used:
- rejection of bad habits;
- weight loss;
- special diets;
- drug treatment.
Modifying dietary habits is not enough in cholesterol treatment, because it depends not only on what we eat: it is produced to a greater extent by the liver. If its levels are very high or there is a serious cardiovascular risk, doctors recommend taking drugs.
Statins are most commonly prescribed during the dyslipidemia treatment, a blocking substance in the liver. True, they have a fairly solid list of contraindications. Drugs in this group, as well as drugs with nicotinic acid, help to balance the level of good and bad cholesterol. Remember that cholesterol treatment does not cure current problems, but only prevents the development of new ones.
The following table is from the American Heart Association.
|Total Cholesterol (mg/dL)||Status|
|Less than 200||Desirable|
|Greater than 240||High|
|LDL Cholesterol (mg/dL)|
|Less than 100||Optimal|
|100-129||Near Optimal/Above Optimal|
|Greater than 190||Very High|
|HDL Cholesterol (mg/dL)|
|Less than 40 for men, Less than 50 for women||Low|
|Greater than 60||High/Desirable|
|Less than 150||Normal|
|500 or Higher||Very High|